【英语学习】【化学】几个与氮(Nitrogen)有关的化学词汇 (1)

(46) 2024-06-14 16:01:01

文章目录

  • nitrogen:氮(元素)
  • niter: 硝石
  • nitric acid: 硝酸
  • nitrate: *n.* 硝酸盐; 硝酸根
  • potassium nitrate: 硝酸钾
  • nitrous acid:亚硝酸
  • nitrite:*n.* 亚硝酸盐; 亚硝酸根
  • sodium nitrite:亚硝酸钠
  • 小结

nitrogen:氮(元素)

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the chemical element of atomic number 7, a colorless, odorless, unreactive gas that forms about 78 percent of the earth’s atmosphere.

Liquid nitrogen (made by distilling liquid air) boils at 77.4 kelvins (-195.8°C) and it is used as a coolant.

词源:late 18th century: from French nitrogène (see niter, -gen).
niter, “硝石”(见下节);-gen,表示 produce,generate。

niter: 硝石

niter 是 potassium nitrate(硝酸钾,见下节)的别称。

nitric acid: 硝酸

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Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for “strong water”) and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid. The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to decomposition into oxides of nitrogen and water.

这里 nitric 用作形容词。
词源:late 18th century: from French (acide) nitrique (see niter, -ic).
niter,硝石;-ic,在化学中,denoting an element in a higher valence. 有higher valence,就有lower valence,用 -ite 表示(见后节)

nitrate: n. 硝酸盐; 硝酸根

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nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO3-. Organic compounds that contain the nitrate ester as a functional group (R-ONO2) are also called nitrates. Nitrates are common components of fertilizers and explosives.

词根:late 18th century: from French(see niter, -ate).
niter,硝石;-ate,在化学中,forming nouns denoting a salt or ester, especially of an acid with a corresponding name ending in -ic (关于 -ic 见前节)。

potassium nitrate: 硝酸钾

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a white crystalline salt, occurring naturally and produced synthetically, used in fertilizer, as a meat preservative, and as a constituent of gunpowder.

nitrous acid:亚硝酸

这里nitrous用作形容词。-ous 后缀表示 lower valence of an element.
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Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution, in the gas phase and in the form of nitrite (NO2-) salts. Nitrous acid is used to make diazonium salts from amines. The resulting diazonium salts are reagents in azo coupling reactions to give azo dyes.

注:monobasic acid:一元酸(只有一个hydrogen ion);diazonium salts:重氮盐(di- two;azo [=a+zo literally not life] nitrogen;-onium ammonium)

nitrite:n. 亚硝酸盐; 亚硝酸根

a salt or ester of nitrous acid, containing the anion NO2- or the group -NO2.

词源:early 19th century: from niter + -ite.
niter,硝石;-ite,在化学中,forming names of salts or esters of acids ending in -ous (见上节)。

sodium nitrite:亚硝酸钠

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Sodium nitrite is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2. It is a white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder that is very soluable in water and is hygroscopic.

注: hygroscopic: (hygro- wet, moisture) (of a substance) tending to absorb moisture from the air 吸湿的

小结

nitrogen是名词,表示化学元素 ,这个词来自于 niter(硝石)。氮元素可以形成两种酸 nitric acidnitrous acid,中文名称分别是 硝酸亚硝酸。中文可以添加一个字加以区分,但是英文中只能使用不同的后缀来区分:-ic 表示价酸,-ous 表示价酸。

在化学反应后,酸可以生成盐,nitric acid生成的盐被称为 nitrate (硝酸盐),例如:potassium nitrate 硝酸钾;nitrous acid生成的盐被称为 nitrite (亚硝酸盐),例如:sodium nitrite 亚硝酸钠。

nitric acid —> nitrate (salt)
nitrous acid —> nitrite (salt)

nitratenitrite 还可以用于表示 “酸根离子”, nitrate表示 硝酸根(NO3-),nitrite表示 亚硝酸根(NO2-)。

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